||modern Indonesian history, Islamic studies
||I have studied the Islamic movement in Indonesia from the Dutch colonial era to the early Independence period. My research has focused on the activities of Arab minorities and their social integration during the early twentieth century. At present, I am primarily conducting investigations into the Islamic movement and nation-building, considering its relationship with the Arab Middle East, and also with other regions of Southeast Asia, such as Singapore and Malaysia.
||Religious History, Introduction to Area Studies, Research Seminar on Society and Development I-IV, Asian Area Studies On-site Seminar I-II